The term “fire protection” refers to preventative measures taken in order to keep fires from breaking out. Should fires develop anyway, measures like early fire protection and fire suppression help protect people, assets and processes.

Fire protection needs to be considered as a whole. Only holistic fire protection concepts will provide the level of protection desired. Fire protection can be broken down into preventative and defensive fire protection. Preventative fire protection can be divided further into structural, technical and organisational fire protection.

Workplaces must be set up and operated in such a way that they do not pose safety and security risks to employees at work.

Building Laws in the individual Federal States specify that the operator of a structural system must ensure that such the configuration, installation, and operation of systems do not endanger life, health, or the environment.

As per §§31 and §§823 of the German Civil Code (BGB), the company is liable under civil law for the actions of its entities and equivalent persons.

From an insurance law point of view, according to (for example) the General Conditions for Fire Insurance, companies as policy holders are obligated to prevent or minimise fire damage.

Source: http://vds-global.com/en/

As per DIN VDE 0833-2, fire detection units in Germany must be planned and installed by professional security system electricians. This specification applies along with DIN 14675 and DIN VDE 0833-1.

Source: DIN VDE 0833-2: 2009-06

Industrial buildings are buildings or parts of buildings used in the industrial or commercial sector for purposes of production (manufacture, processing, recovery, distribution) or storage of products or goods.

The Guideline on Industrial Construction Prototypes, the majority of whose content has been adopted into Federal State law, contains additional specifications. The purpose of this guideline is to regulate minimum requirements as regards fire protection in industrial buildings,

  • Structural component fire resistance;
  • Building material flammability;
  • Size of fire sections / firefighting sections;
  • Arrangement, location, and length of fire escape routes.

Industrial buildings that comply with the requirements set out in this guideline fulfil the protection objectives specified in §14 MBO (Model Building Regulation).

Source: Industrial construction prototype guidelines (MIndBauRL)

The sum of all property-specific measures necessary to manage existing risks and achieve all relevant or defined protection objectives.

Note: Based on this definition, regional building regulations (including special building laws) can be considered the building authorities’ template for protection concepts. Although this concept is frequently employed in construction, it has no standard legal definition, so it has come to mean a variety of things in practical usage. Fire protection concepts are usually required for special constructions if building authorities have not introduced any special building provisions to cover it, or if the construction deviates substantially from these provisions. Fire protection concepts are sometimes equated to fire protection certificates, or else the two are combined into a single entity.

Source: VdS 3547: 2014-02(01)

Modifications to fire protection system technical infrastructure and increases in fire load require necessitate a review of the fire protection concept. Should this review result in a lower safety category, a higher equivalent fire duration, or a higher calculated required duration of fire resistance, this represents a modification of use. Such modifications of use then require a building application and a building permit if they result in increased requirements.

Source: Industrial construction prototype guidelines (MIndBauRL)

Structural fire protection is part of preventative fire protection, and includes considerations such as building component fire resistance, building material flammability, configuration of escape and rescue routes, and fire section dimensioning.

Source: G-20-2 Requirements, Classifications, Certificates 08/2011 Knauf

Technical fire protection is an aspect of preventative fire protection and includes aspects like (for example) fire alarm systems, extinguishing systems, smoke and heat extraction systems, emergency power supplies and emergency lighting.

Source: G-20-2 Requirements, Classifications, Certificates 08/2011 Knauf

Organizational fire protection is a component of preventive fire protection and includes, for example, making fire extinguishers available, training staff, designating rescue routes and safety equipment, and creating evacuation and rescue plans.

Source: G-20-2 Requirements, Classifications, Certificates 08/2011 Knauf

Fire protection certificates compare the individual and overall fire protection measures planned for a specific property against the relevant statutory fire protection requirements, and against the protection concept submitted to building authorities (if applicable).

Source: VdS 3547: 2014-02(01)

Evaluations are expert opinion reports on a specific situation. Note: Evaluations are often ordered in order to obtain concrete answers and recommended solutions to individual problems or questions. These evaluations are not a substitute for a fire protection certificate or a fire protection concept.

Source: VdS 3547: 2014-02(01)

Fire detectors that respond to combustion and/or pyrolysis products floating in the atmosphere.

Source: DIN EN 54-1:2011

A smoke detector in which air and aerosols are drawn in through air sampling equipment via an air sampling unit (e.g., aspiration fan or pump) and directed to one or more smoke sensor units.

Source: DIN E 54-20:2009

A component, series of components or special device (e.g., pipe network, etc.) that is part of an air sampling smoke detection system and directs air samples to the smoke sensor unit.

Source: DIN EN 54-20:2009

Air sampling smoke detectors are smoke detectors that use an air sampling unit (e.g., an aspiration fan) to continuously draw air and aerosols into a suitable air sampling pipe system, so that it can reach one or two highly sensitive smoke sensors. The air samples are evaluated within the unit. These detector systems can be adjusted and parametrised optimally for specific environmental conditions. Air sampling smoke detectors are tested and certified in accordance with their own separate product standard, DIN EN 54-20.

As per DIN EN 54-20, air sampling smoke detectors are divided into three different sensitivity classifications: Class A for highly sensitive detectors, Class B for sensitive detectors, and Class C for standard detectors.

Alarms that respond to fire characteristics measured in the vicinity of a fixed point.

Source:  DIN EN 54-1:2011

Automatic fire detectors are selected based on the expected fire progression and the interference factors anticipated within the property. Specialist planners like WAGNER can use these framework conditions as a basis for selecting appropriate fire protection and configuring the project according to customer needs.

Air sampling smoke detectors, for example, can provide a standard-compliant substitute for up to 32 point-type smoke detectors. Air sampling smoke detectors may be preferable in applications requiring the earliest possible fire detection, as well as those that would benefit from a central, easily accessible air sampling smoke detection system to allow maintenance without interrupting operations. Air sampling smoke detectors are also ideal for ensuring maximum security against false alarms, especially when used in combination with a filter system adapted to the individual usage situation.

For example, air sampling smoke detectors are a preferable solution in applications involving significant humidity, very high or low temperatures, or highly contaminated air.


“Air sampling points on air sampling smoke detectors should be configured like point-type smoke detectors.”

When planning an air sampling smoke detection system, this means that, for example, an air sampling point for a Class C detector will respond with the same degree of sensitivity as a conventional point-type smoke detector.

Source: DIN VDE 0833-2:2009-06

WAGNER’s definition of “earliest possible fire detection” means “as early as possible, but still secure.” This head start on fire detection is used to identify fire outbreak scenarios within the optimum time window and activate the corresponding alarms as quickly as possible.

A fire detection system component containing at least one sensor that monitors at least one appropriate fire-related physical and/or chemical parameter either continuously or at regular intervals, and that has at least one corresponding signal for the fire detection control panel.

Source: VdS 2320: 2008-06 (03)

A group of components (including a fire detection control panel) that, when arranged in a defined configuration, are capable of detecting fires, reporting them, and signalling to initiate appropriate action.

Source: VdS 2380: 2016-06 (05)

Fire alarm systems and their components are subject to maintenance requirements. Generally speaking, this includes activities such as inspection, maintenance, repair, and improvement (DIN 31051:2012-09)

As a rule, such activities and the frequency with which they are performed are governed by local/national standards and regulations. Manufacturer specifications for the product in question are to be taken into account as well.

The relevant criteria for fire detection systems operated in Germany are documented in the currently valid versions of Standards DIN 14675, DIN VDE 0833-1 and DIN VDE 0833-2.

A fire detection control panel is a piece of equipment as per DIN EN 54-1 that records information reported by the fire detection system and uses it as the basis for creating notifications.

Source: VdS 2380:2016-06 (05)

The term “fire detection system” refers to the totality of all fire detection equipment and components (e.g., fire detection control panel, fire detector, alarm system) designed to work together as a coordinated whole.

Source: VdS 2320:2008-06 (03)

Oxygen reduction systems supply nitrogen to a protected area in order to prevent the spread of flames. Oxygen reduction systems serve as preventative fire protection. Oxygen reduction systems are not designed to extinguish fires.

Such systems must be planned, installed and tested on the basis of precise knowledge of the protected area, its usage, and the measures necessary for the protection of personnel. It is important to consider risk-appropriate fire protection measures as a whole. Oxygen reduction systems can only be used as one part of a fire protection concept, in combination with other fire protection measures.

Source: VdS 3527:2015-05 (02)

Oxygen reduction systems maintain an atmosphere in a protected room/area that will reliably prevent the spread of flames. Suitable measurement and control equipment supplies the protected area with exactly enough nitrogen to ensure that the design concentration of oxygen is not exceeded.

Source: VdS 3527:2015-05 (02)

Fire risk is determined based on the probability of a fire occurring and the damage that would be expected as a result. Note: Frequently calculated as the product of probability and impact.

Source: DIN EN ISO 13943: 2011-02

A fire protection system is a group of devices that, in combination, are capable of automatically triggering actions to minimise the impact of a fire.

Source: DIN EN 54-1:2011

Pyrolysis refers to the chemical decomposition of a substance as the result of heat.
Note: The term “pyrolysis” is often used to refer to the stage of a fire before the start of combustion and the appearance of flames.

Source: DIN EN ISO 13943: 2011-02

VdS approval is a confirmation that equipment, components, systems and/or installers are in conformity with the relevant VdS guidelines.

Source: VdS 2380:2016-06 (05)